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Actions are the core of interactors. They manipulate your application and simulate how a user behaves as they use it.


Interactors define actions that you can perform on them. The actions are what a user can usually do: click, focus, fillIn, much like in any other testing library. However, Interactors also allow you to define actions for your components as your user would think of them, like closeModal or toggleMenu.

Let’s go back to our Button example from before, but now instead of just referring to it, let’s click it:

await Button('Submit').click();

Because Interactors can only match one element, there’s no ambiguity over which submit button you clicked. Additionally, the action will throw an error if the Interactor is not there, so you don’t have to worry about checking if the button exists before issuing a click action.


Some actions, such as fillIn, can take arguments. For example when filling in a text field, we need to specify the value that we want to fill in:

await TextField('Name').fillIn('Jonas');


A common problem when testing interactive UIs is that an element that you want to interact with is not ready yet. Maybe you're waiting for a request to the server, which would render the element. Most testing libraries include some kind of waitFor function which waits for the element to appear before proceeding. When designing interactors, we took great care to ensure that you will never need to call waitFor, and in fact interactors does not include such a function.

Let's imagine our submit button is not shown yet and will only appear after a short period of time. Remember, this is how we would click on the submit button:

await Button('Submit').click();

And this is how we would click on the submit button if it does not exist yet and appears after a short while:

await Button('Submit').click();

As you can see, it's the same! We didn't need to do anything! The secret is that all actions always wait for the element to appear if it has not appeared yet. Any actions will be retried again and again, until the element exists. After a certain while, interactors give up and the action times out. The duration of the timeout is configurable.

We have designed interactors very carefully to enable you to write rock solid tests which never fail randomly. This mechanism is the same underlying mechanism which is used by the popular acceptance testing framework Capybara, which is known for producing very solid tests.


There are some cases where the actions that the interactor provides aren't enough, and you want to do some custom manipulation on an element. Interactors do not give you direct access to the element, but you can use the perform method as an escape hatch in case you need to do something like this:

await Button('Submit').perform((element) => element.form.submit());

This also has the same waiting behaviour as other actions. perform also plays an important role when defining your own actions on interactors.